So, Oetzi the Iceman from the Copper Age Tyrolean Alps has turned out more Middle Eastern than the majority of present-day Europeans. You can see that result on the first PCA below (a), where Oetzi (black dot) is closer to the Middle Eastern samples than even most modern Italians (orange dots). Unfortunately, the article doesn't resolve why this is so. But one possibility is that almost all Europeans today, except those from the Mediterranean coastline, have more North European or North European-like ancestry than Oetzi, pushing them up and right on that PCA, away from the Middle East. In any case, this result makes it tough to argue that the ancestors of most modern Europeans (the Y-chromosome R1a and R1b crowd) arrived on the continent after Oetzi's kind (the Neolithic Y-chromosome G crowd). It appears as if they were already there, at the same time as the Iceman, and probably earlier, and then expanded down into South Europe later, leaving only more isolated areas, like Sardinia and Corsica, relatively untouched.
The image above of the figures + tables was edited by me to make it a little more informative than the original. Below is the abstract from the study, and here is the Iceman genome browser. Can anyone tell me where & how I can download this guy's SNPs, so I can make him a Eurogenes project member?
The Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old Copper age individual, was discovered in 1991 on the Tisenjoch Pass in the Italian part of the Ötztal Alps. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the Iceman and show 100% concordance between the previously reported mitochondrial genome sequence and the consensus sequence generated from our genomic data. We present indications for recent common ancestry between the Iceman and present-day inhabitants of the Tyrrhenian Sea, that the Iceman probably had brown eyes, belonged to blood group O and was lactose intolerant. His genetic predisposition shows an increased risk for coronary heart disease and may have contributed to the development of previously reported vascular calcifications. Sequences corresponding to ~60% of the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi are indicative of the earliest human case of infection with the pathogen for Lyme borreliosis.
Keller et al., New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing, Nature Communications, Volume: 3, Article number: 698, DOI: doi:10.1038/ncomms1701